2018年10月自考英语(一)应试复习资料【7-9章】

2018-08-30 15:59 来源:网络综合
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【导语】当你孤独时,风儿就是我的歌声,愿它能使你得到片刻的安慰;当你骄傲时,雨点就是我的警钟,愿它能使你获得永恒的谦逊。以下是无忧考网为大家整理的《2018年10月自考英语(一)应试复习资料【7-9章】》供您查阅。

【篇一】

  本课简介

  技术是否也是一把双刃剑,在给人们带来帮助的同时也带来了弊端?本课通过卫星通讯的利弊昭示人们“明智”地运用技术才能使我们走向成功。

  卫星、计算机和电视的三结合改变了人们的生活。卫星被用来传送电视节目、电话和印刷材料;卫星被用于远程教育,使边远地区的人们通过“空中教室”接受教育;卫星被用来帮助生活在交通不便的偏僻地区的人们;卫星使世界各地的人们便捷地获取信息。然而侵犯隐私、使人与人之间疏于接触交流等弊端也应引起关注。

  本课主要语言点

  1.At the beginning of the twentieth century, there were four powerful means of transmitting and receiving information over long distances:…

  本句中的beginning 是一个名词,意思是“开始,开端”。如:

  means在本句中的意思是“方法;工具”

  by all means 尽一切办法

  live within/beyond one's means 量入(不量入)为出

  a means to an end 达到目的的方法

  by some means or other 用某种方法

  2.By the middle of the century, both radio and television had become established means of transmitting sounds and pictures.

  句中所用的过去完成时,表示过去某时前已经发生的动作或情况。该动作已经完成,或者可能延续下去。用by引起的时间状语常与过去完成时连用。例如:

  1)By the end of last June, they had visited 15 countries. (到去年六月底为止他们已经访问了15个国家。)

  2)By the end of last year Henry had collected 1500 butterfly specimens. (到去年年底,亨利已经采集了一千五百多个蝴蝶标本。)

  established在句中做形容词,意思是“常规的”。这个词还可解释为“(被)设立的;确认的;既定的;公认的”。例如:

  1)a newly established organization (新设的组织)

  2)the established principles of international law (公认的国际法准则)

  3)an established fact (既成事实)

  4)an established custom (常规)

  3.In order to transmit an event such as the Olympics Via satellite, television signals are first changed into radio waves,which are then sent from a station on earth to an orbiting satellite.

  such as的后面既可以跟名词也可以跟从句,意为“诸如…之类的”;“例如”或“像…这样的人或事物”

  which引导的是一个非限定性的定语从句。非限定性定语从句在修饰人时用who, whom或whose, 在修饰物时用which.非限定性定语从句常用逗号与主句分开

  非限定性定语从句也可用关系副词where或when来引导。非限定性定语从句的先行词可以是一个词,也可以是前面主句中的一个短语、从句或前面整个句子,通常用关系代词which引导。

  4.In theory, every person will have access to an unlimited amount of information.

  in theory意为“从理论上来说;在理论上”,与其意思相反的词组是in practice (在实践中;实际上)。

  have access to是一个很常用的词组,意为“可接近,可进入”,to是介词,动词have也可用其他词替换。如get,gain,give,win等。

  information是一个不可数名词,后面不可以加s,许多信息可以用a lot of information, a large amount of information, much information等表达。一条信息可以表达为a piece of information.

  amount通常用在不可数名词前面,如the amount of money; a considerable amount of prejudice (相当大的偏见)。在复数名词前面可用number,如the number of mistakes; the number of students

  5.The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas where transportation is difficult.

  how引导的是一个宾语从句。我们很熟悉的是that引导的宾语从句,而且that常常可以省略。如:We must remember (that)things are easier said than done. (我们必须记住事情都是说起来容易,做起来难。)

  用连接代词或副词引导的宾语从句我们也应弄清楚。

  provide是一个常用单词,通常可以有如下用法:provide sth. to/for sb.; provide sb. with sth.; provide sb. sth.;provide that…,在前一个单元中,我们已对provide一词有过讲解

  6.He was then able to follow the doctor's instructions on how to care for the patient.

  句子中的on意思为“关于;有关”,可用about替换

  care of 在句子中的意思是“照顾”,可用attend; look after替换。

  care for 还可以解释为“担心”,“介意”,“愿意”,可用about替换for.

  1)He doesn't care about/for his clothes. (他不讲究衣着。)

  2)The old lady cared much for her daughter's safety. (老太太非常为女儿的安全担心。

  7.The most common use of telecommunication satellites,however,has been for transmitting telephone calls.however

  在本句中做副词用,意思相当于but.但是however和but在用法上是有差异的。however不放在句首或句末时,前后通常都加逗号,而but则不用。请看例句:

  1)It is not,however, the only answer to the question. (然而,这不是问题的唯一答案。)

  2)I am sorry,but I won't be able to come this time. (很报歉,我这次不能来了。)

  8. Telecommunication can make information from around the world available to use quickly and easily, but some people worry that this may be a risk to our privacy.

  available是一个形容词,意思是“可得到的;可用的;有效的”。

  1)I am sorry those shoes are not available in your size. (很报歉,那些鞋没你的尺码。)

  2)If I am not available when you call, leave a message. (你打电话来时如果我不在,请留个言。)

  9.We can prevent this from happening by carefully controlling the new technology.

  prevent…from…意思为“阻止…发生”,也可用stop…from…或keep…from.From在前两个短语中可被省去。

  Nothing can prevent him (from)going there.(什么也阻止不了他去那儿。)

  本课主要词组及语法要点

  词组:

  1. at the beginning of 2.means of

  3. over long distance 4. by the middle of

  5. such as 6. change into

  7. from…to… 8. be capable of

  9. not only…but… 10.in theory

  11. have access to 12.amount of

  13. provide…to… 14.follow sb's instructions

  15. care for 16. as well as

  17. at the same time 18. make…available

  19. pay for 20.isolate…from…

  语法:

  1.过去完成时

  1)…both radio and television had be come established means of transmitting sounds and pictures.

  2. 非限定性定语从句

  1)…radio waves, which are then sent from a station on earth to an orbiting satellite.

  2)…back to earth, where another station picks them up and changes them back into television signals.

  3)The combination of satellites,which transmit information,computers,which store information,and television,which displays information,will change every home into an education and entertainment center.

  2. 宾语从句

  1)We must remember that technology alone is not the answer.

  2)The satellite also demonstrated how it could provide help to people living in isolated areas…。

  3. 注意such as,as well as,as的用法

  1)In order to transmit an event such as the Olympics via satellite, …

  2)…printed materials such as books and magazines.

  3)…as well as get any information they need, …

  4)As one telecommunication expert days, …

  Text B What People Don't Know about Air

  短语表达

  1. without

  We couldn't have finished the work so soon without your help.

  2. adv. + past participle

  It is widely known that the earth goes around the sun.

  It is generally believed that the earth is getting hotter.

  3. where

  Where there is a will,there is a way.

  4. be forced to

  They were forced to work 14 hours a day.

  5. shelter v.& n.

  Mother tried to shelter her from the blow of the tragic news.

  You have to find shelter from the blazing sun.

  6. protect from

  She had his umbrella to protect her from the sun.

  7. deadly adj.

  A drop of this poison might be deadly to man.

  8. burst

  As he braked a tire burst.

  Everybody in the room burst out laughing.

  The little girl burst into tears.

  9. rest upon

  His arm rested upon the table.

  The task rested upon my shoulder.

  His eyes rested upon a strange object.

  10. gaze at

  He was standing at the window, gazing at the street.

  11. not…until

  He didn't go out to play until he finished his homework.

  12. in the meantime

  13. pay attention to

  Please pay more attention to your spelling next time.

  14. add to

  If you praise others more often, you can add great happiness to their life.

  What he said just now added to my confusion.

  本课主要语法点:动词不定式

  在句子中,不能作谓语,而是担任其他语法功能的动词,叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词包括动词不定式,分词和动名词。

  1.不定式的语法功能:不定式具有名词、形容词和副词的特征,因此他在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、宾补、定语和状语。

  1)作主语

  如:To speak English well is not an easy job.说好英语不是一件容易的事情。

  动词不定式作主语时,为了保持句子的平衡,往往用it作形式主语,而把不定式短语放在谓语动词之后。

  如:It is important to master English grammar.掌握英语的语法是重要的。

  2)作表语

  如:Our plan is to set up another middle school for the children.我们的计划是为孩子们再建一所学校。

  His ambition is to become a successful scientist.他的抱负是要成为一名成功的科学家。

  3)作宾语

  如:They decided to change their mind. 他们决定改变主意。

  I can't afford to live in a detached house.我住不起独门独院的房子。

  注:a)不定式短语作宾语时,如果还有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾语补足语后面,而用it作形式宾语。

  如:I find it interesting to study English.我觉得学英语很有趣。

  b)动词不定式也可以作某些形容词短语的宾语。这些形容词有:ready, eager, anxious, able, sure, glad, afraid, pleased等。

  如:They are anxious to learn how to swim.他们渴望学会游泳。

  c)动词不定式一般不作介词的宾语,但是不定式之前如有疑问词,就可以作介词的宾语。

  如:Professor Wang gave some advice on how to learn a foreign language.王教授给了一些如何学习外语的建议。

  d) 有些动词可以跟疑问词+不定式作宾语

  如:I don't know what to do next.我不知道下一步该做什么。

  4)作宾语补足语

  动词不定式可用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。

  如:My English teacher advised me to buy a better dictionary. 我的英语老师建议我买一本好的词典。

  注:在feel, hear, listen to, look at, observe, see, watch, make, have, let等动词后面,复合宾语中动词不定式的标记to通常被省略。动词help后面的to可以省略也可以保留。

  如:I saw her enter the cinema.我看见她进了电影院。

  We must have someone repair the computer.我们必须让人来修这台电脑。

  He helps the little girl (to) finish her homework everyday.他每天都帮助这个小女孩完成她的家庭作业。

  5)作定语

  动词不定式作定语放在所修饰的名词或代词之后。

  如:Her desire to win was apparent.她的求胜愿望显而易见。

  She was the only one to get a scholarship.她是唯一得到奖学金的人。

  注:a)作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具, 不定式后面须加相应的介词。

  如:She is looking for a room to live in.她在寻找一间房子住。(live是不及物动词,后面加相应的介词)

  I need a pen to write with.我需要一支笔写字。(pen是write动作的工具,在write后面加介词)

  但是如果不定式修饰的名词是time, place或way, 不定式后面的介词习惯上省去。

  如:He had no place to live.他没有居住的地方。

  That's no way to talk.不应这样谈话。

  b)在there+be这一句型中,动词不定式作定语时可能出现动词不定式的被动式,其含义和主动式基本相同。

  如:There are many books to read/ to be read.有好多书要读。

  但是当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事情时,不定式用主动形式,如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须完成,则用被动式。

  如:There's nothing to do.意为无事可做,感到无聊。

  There's nothing to be done.意为某东西坏了,无法使之恢复正常。

  c)被only, last, next,序数词,最高级修饰的名词常用不定式作定语。

  如:The next train to arrive is from New York.下一列到达的火车是从纽约开来的。

  Clint was the only person to survive the air crash. Clint 是这次*事故中唯一的幸存者。

  6)作状语

  a)动词不定式作目的状语:

  如:He went to America to learn English.他去美国学习英语。

  为了强调动词不定式所表示的目的时,动词不定式可以用in order to或so as to.

  如:She reads China Daily every day in order to/so as to improve her English.她每天读《中国日报》提高她的英语水平。

  in order to 为于句首或句中均可,so as to不能为于句首。

  b)动词不定式作结果状语:

  不定式作结果状语时,往往仅限于几个具有终止含义的动词,learn(得知),find(发现),see(看见),hear(听见)等。

  如:He retuned home to learn his son had gone to the countryside.他回家后才知道他的儿子已去了乡下。

  不定式用在too…to和enough结构中表示结果

  如:He is old enough to join the army.他够参军的年龄了。

  He is too short to reach the top of the shelf.他太矮了,够不着书架的顶层。

  某些形容词如:anxious, delighted, easy, kind, pleased, ready, willing 等,在too…to结构中,没有否定的含义,而是表示肯定。

  如:He is too ready to find fault.他老是爱挑毛病。

  在not, only, all, never, but等后的too…to结构,too的含义为very,不定式没有否定含义。

  如:It is never too late to learn.活到老,学到老。

  动词不定式和only连用时,表示未预料到的结果。

  如:He went to the station hurriedly only to find the train had left.他匆匆地赶到车站,却发现火车已经离开了。

  2.动词不定式的复合结构

  动词不定式的复合结构for+名词或代词宾格+动词不定式,在这种结构中,for后面的名词或代词是不定式的逻辑主语。

  如:It is necessary for us to learn from each other.我们必须互相学习。(不定式作主语)

  What we want is for you to understand the matter clearly.我们所希望的是你更清楚地了解这件事。(不定式作表语)

  We consider it necessary for him to do the job alone.我们认为很有必要他独自做那项工作。(不定式作宾语)

  There is a lot work for us to do.有很多工作要我们去做。(不定式作定语)

  The text is too long for us to learn by heart.课文太长,我们背不下来。(不定式作状语)

  注:有些表示人或事物性质、特征的形容词的不定式复合结构是of+名词或代词宾格+动词不定式

  如: It is very kind of you to help him every day.每天帮助他,你真好。

  It is brave of you to do that.你那样做真勇敢。3.疑问词what, who, which, when, where, how和连接词whether之后,可以跟带to的不定式,构成一个特殊的动词不定式短语,可以在句中作主语,宾语和表语。

  如:How to solve the problem is very important.如何解决这个问题是很重要的。(主语)

  He didn't know what to say. 他不知道该怎么说。(宾语)

  The question is where to find the source of water.问题是在什么地方能找到水源。(表语)

  4.不带to的不定式

  1)在feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, let, have等动词后面,动词不定式作宾语补足语,动词不定式符号to通常省略。

  2)在would rather…than, would sooner…than, rather than, had better等结构中

  如:I would rather go than stay.我宁愿走不愿意留下。

  He insisted on going back to his work rather than stay in hospital.他坚持要返回到工作岗位,而不再住院。

  3)在以why引导的疑问句中不带to。

  如:Why spend such a lot of money? 为什么花那么多钱?

  4)在cannot but, cannot choose, cannot help but之后的不定式不带to.

  如:I cannot but admire his courage. 我不得不钦佩他的勇气。

  5) 不定式动词在介词but, except, besides后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后面的不定式不带to, 否则要带to。

  如:The boy would do nothing but cry.这个男孩只是哭。

  I have no choice but to accept the fact.除了接受这个事实之外,我别无选择。

  6)某些习语中,如:make believe(假装),let go (放开,释放),hear say(据说),go hang (

  忘却)等。

  如:The children are making believe that they are princes and princesses.孩子假装他们是王子和公主。

  7)两个动词不定式由and, or 或than连接在一起,为了避免重复,第二个动词不定式可以省去。

  如:I'd like to lie down and go to sleep.我想躺下睡觉。

  但是如果是两者的对照,后面的不定式不省to.

  如:It is better to laugh than to cry. 笑比哭好。

  第二部分 巩固练习

  用括号中动词的适当形式填空

  1.The boy was made ___________ (sing) the song once again.

  填to sing. 在make后面,不定式作主语补足语时应该加上不定式符号to

  2.Don't make children _________ (work) too hard.

  填work. make后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语的时候,省略不定式符号to

  3.They would rather _____ (die) than _________ (surrender).

  填 die, surrender。would rather 后面不用to

  4.He could not choose but ___________ (love) her.

  填love. could not choose but后面之后的不定式不带to

  5.She could do nothing but _________ (change ) her name under the circumstances.

  填change. 不定式动词在介词but后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后面的不定式不带to, 否则要带to

  6.He had his son _________ (play)the violin three hours a day.

  填play. have 后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语,要省略to

  7.There was nothing to do except _________ (escape).

  填escape. 不定式动词在介词except后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后面的不定式不带to, 否则要带to

  8.He has not alternative but ________ (go ) and ask his sister for help.

  填 to go. 不定式动词在介词but后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词do的各种形式,那么,这些介词后面的不定式不带to, 否则要带to

  9.What can you see in the park?

  I can see birds ________ (fly ) in the sky and sometimes I can see people _______ (do) shadowboxing.

  填 fly/ do 感官动词see后面的动词不定式作宾语补足语的时候,省略to

【篇二】

  本课简介

  在learned words and popular words这篇课文中,作者对学术词汇和普通词汇进行了定义。讲述了两类词汇之间的差异,并且指出把词分为学术的和普通的方便而且有道理。但是人们必须注意,把普通词汇理解为属于大众所有的词,而不是某个特定阶层的人们所拥有的东西。学术词汇也并非有学问之人专用,只是它的存在是由于书籍和文学的培养而不是日常会话的实际需要。

  本课主要语言点

  1.In every cultivated language there are two great classes of words which, taken together, make up the whole vocabulary.

  class在本句中的意思是“种类”,相当于type, category.

  class 还常用来表示“等级”,如:a second-class hotel (二等旅馆);

  class 也可以用动词用,意思是“把 …分类;把…看作”,

  make up 在本句中的意思是“组成、构成”,

  用被动语态时则应用be made up of,

  taken together 过去分词短语做后置定语,对中心词做一些附加说明,相当于一个非限定性定语从句,要用逗号和中心词隔开

  2.First,there are those words with which we become familiar in ordinary conversation,which we learn,that is to say,from the members of our own family and from our friends,and which we should know and use even if we could not read or write.

  句子中which引导的都是定语从句,修饰中心词words.第一个which的前面有介词with,这儿的with是familiar with中的介词前置了。Familiar with 意为“熟悉”。如:Are you familiar with the man standing over there?(站在那边的那个人你熟悉吗?)

  请注意familiar with 与familiar to 的区别,familiar with 的主语通常是人,而familiar to的主语通常是物。

  that is to say 是插入语,其作用是对整个一句话进行解释,类似的插入语还有so to speak, if I may say so, if you don't mind等等

  2)The energy problem concerns us all (能源问题关系到我们每个人)

  stock的意思很多,如“存货”,“股票”,“公债券”,“牲畜”等。

  stock in trade意思是“例行工作”,“常规”,

  4.Such words may be called “popular”, since they belong to the people at large and are not the possession of a limited class only.

  since 在句中引导的是一个原因状语从句,

  at large 在本句中的意思是“整个”,这个词组的意思还有很多,请看下面的句子:

  1)The people at large love peace (大多数人热爱和平)

  2)The virus is still at large (这种病毒还在蔓延)

  3)The murderer is still at large (*犯仍逍遥法外)

  4)He talked at large about his plans (他详尽地谈了自己的计划)

  5)They made the arrangements at large (他们随意地做了安排 )

  5.请注意区别与possession 有关的两个词组:in possession of sth……和 in the possession of sb.

  1)He is in possession of this house (他拥有这所房子)

  2)The house is in the possession of him

  3)On the other hand, our language includes large number of words which are relatively seldom used in ordinary conversation.

  英语中有许多表示启承转合的词语,阅语中注意这些词有助于我们提高理解力,写作中注意用这些词,有助于我们把文章写得连贯、有条理。On the other hand 在本句中用来表示不同或相反的语气,在前一段中讲了popular word 这一段中作者则要讲讲learned words.表示不同或相反语气的词还有很多,比如:Conversely, however, on the contrary, unlike, whereas, yet等等。

  前面我们提到过number可以与可数名词连用,而amount可与不可数名词连用,如:

  1)A large number of students have passed the exam (许多学生已经通过了考试)

  2)They paid a large amount of money for the house (他们付了一大笔钱买了这座房子)

  6.Their meanings are known to every educated person, but there is little occasion to use them at home

  occasion 通常可以做可数名词用,意思是“时刻、场合”;也可以做不可数名词用,意思是:“必要性、需要;机会”。

  7.In the latter,we are using a Latin Derivation which has exactly the same meaning

  在前一句中用了“in the first case,” 本句中的“in the latter ”是指in the latter case .对两件事分别进行表述时,可以用in the first case, in the latter case 这一类词,条理非常清楚,也可以用the former,the latter 来表述。derivation 是derive 的名词形式。Latin derivation 意思是“拉丁语词源的词”

  8.The terms “popular”and“learned”,as applied to words,are not absolute definitions.本句中的term意思是“术语、名称”

  term 还有“期限;任期;学期”的意思,如:

  During his 4-year term of office,he did a lot of things for the common people.

  (在他四年的任职期间,他为普通百姓做了不少事。)

  apply to 在句中的意思是“用于”,如:

  1)This rule applies to upper class students only (这条规则只适用于高年级学生。)

  2)I don't think what he says applies to you (我想他的话对你不适用)

  apply for 则是“申请”的意思

  9.Still the classification into “learned” and “popular” is convenient and sound .

  本句中的sound是形容词,意思是“正确的;明智的”,如:

  He felt so happy that he had made a sound decision.

  (做了正确的决定,他感到很高兴。)

  请看下面几个句子,注意sound 在句中的意思:

  1)He is sound in body and mind (他身心健康)

  2)The house is sound .Don't hesitate to buy it (这所房了完好无损,别犹豫,买下它)

  3)The baby is having a sound sleep.(宝宝在酣睡)

  4)Father gave him a sound beating.(父亲给他一顿痛打)

  10.When we call a word “learned” we don't mean that it is used by learned persons alone, but simply that its presence in the English vocabulary is due to books and the cultivation of literature rather than to the actual needs of ordinary people

  not (that)…but (that)。意思“不是…。而是。”如:

  1)I came here again not because I enjoy the scenery so much but because I like the people .

  (我又来这儿,不是因为我多喜欢这儿的景色,而是我爱这儿的人们。)

  2)By calling him Shylock, I don't mean that he is named Shylock,but that he is as miserly as Shylock.

  (叫他夏洛克,我不是说他的名字叫夏洛克,而是说他像夏洛克一样吝啬。)

  due to 在句中的意思是“由于”,如:

  1)His failure was due to carelessness (他的失败是由于粗心。)

  2)Due to lack of funds,they had to postpone the project.(由于缺少资金,他们不得不推迟计划)

  rather than 在本句的意思是“不是…而是……”,“与其……不如…”

  1) He is a writer than a teacher (与其说他是教师,不如说他是作家。)

  2)He lay rather than sit in the armchair (与其说他是坐在扶手椅上不如说是躺在里面。)

  本课主要词组

  1.make up

  2.be familiar with

  3.learn from

  4.belong to

  5.at large

  6.on the other hand

  7.be knows to

  8.acquaintance with

  9.in a style

  10.be of importance

  11.in the first case

  12.in the latter (case)

  13.in print

  14.apply to

  15.come up

  16.as to

  17.as a whole

  18.due to

  19.rather than

  Text B how should you build up your vocabulary?

  短语表达

  1.build up (建立;增强;增加)

  2.come across (穿过,出现;遇到)

  We are bound to come across difficulties, but we are determined to overcome them.

  3.look up (查阅)

  4.at top speed (以最高速度)

  5.depend on (依靠;取决于)

  6.make sense (有意义、讲得通)

  7.try doing sth(尝试做某事)

  8.come up with (提出,想出;提供)

  9.lead to(导致)

  10.after all (毕竟)

  11.provide with (提供)

  12.begin with (以……开始)

  本课重点掌握的语法: 分词

  分词是一种非限定动词,它兼有动词、形容词和副词的特征。在句中可以担任定语、表语、宾语补足语和状语。分词可以分为现在分词和过去分词。

  1.现在分词和过去分词的区别

  语态上不同:现在分词表示主动的意思,多用以描述事物对人的情感所具有的影响力或作用。过去分词表示被动的意思,多用以描述人物的情感,表达外界事物对人产生的影响。

  如:a moving film一部感动人的影片

  a moved audience受感动的观众

  时间上的关系:现在分词表示的动作往往正在进行,过去分词所表示的动作往往已经完成。

  如:developing countries发展中国家

  developed countries发达国家

  boiling water正在开的水

  boiled water 开水

  2.分词作定语

  如果是单个分词作定语,放在所修饰的名词之前。

  如:I am reading a very interesting novel.我正在读一本非常有趣的小说。

  如果分词短语作定语,通常放在所修饰的名词之后。分词短语作定语,其作用相当于一个定语从句。

  如:Most of the young teachers working in this university are Ph.D.在这所大学工作的大多数年轻教师都是博士。

  (=who work in this university)

  Do you know the girl employed by this company? 你认识受雇于这家公司的那个女孩吗?

  (=who is employed by this company)

  注:动名词和现在分词作定语是有区别的。动名词作定语,和它修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系,即它不是该名词发出的动作,只是表明所修饰名词的目的和用途。现在分词作定语表示所修饰的词与分词有逻辑上的主谓关系。

  如:a sleeping car= a car for sleeping卧车(动名词)

  a sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping睡觉的男孩(分词)

  3.分词作表语

  分词作表语相当于形容词,现在分词多指主语的性质,过去分词说明主语的状态。

  如:They were completely exhausted.他们完全筋疲力尽了。

  The rumors were startling. 谣言令人震惊。

  注:a)分词作表语,相当于形容词。不可与构成进行时态和被动语态中的分词混淆起来。他们的形式是一样的,但可以从意义上予以区别。

  如:The film is moving.这电影很感人。(分词作表语,说明主语的性质)

  They are moving next Sunday.他们下周日搬家。(现在进行时,表示动作)

  The bookstore is now closed.书店现在已经关闭了。(分词作表语,说明主语所处的状态)

  The bookstore is usually closed at 7:30 p.m.书店通常在下午7:30关闭。(被动语态,表示动作)

  b)动名词和现在分词作表语的区别:动名词作表语说明主语的内容,而且可以转换到句首作主语;现在分词作表语,表示主语的特征,其作用相当于形容词。

  如:His favorite sport is running.他最喜爱的运动是跑步。(动名词作表语)

  可以转换为:Running is his favorite sport.

  The film is very moving.这部影片很感人。(分词作表语)

  4.作宾语补足语

  分词可以在动词后面的复合宾语中作宾语补足语。常跟分词作宾补的动词有:

  have, keep, get, see, hear, find, feel, make, observe, watch等等。

  如:He kept the machine running for ten hours.他使机器一直运转了十个小时。

  We saw her entering the cinema.我们看见她进了电影院。

  注:a)动词have, get后面的复合宾语中,通常由过去分词作宾语补足语,且表示的动作往往是别人完成的。

  如:We must get the television set repaired.我们必须把电视机修好。(别人修的)

  I had my hair cut.我理发了。(别人给我理的)

  b)现在分词构成的复合宾语与不定式构成的复合宾语在意义上是有差别的。现在分词表示动作正在发生(即动作处于发生的过程中,还没有结束);不定式着重说明动作的全过程,表示动作发生了(即动作全过程结束了)。

  如:I saw the girl getting on the bus.我看见她在上公共汽车。

  I saw the girl get on the bus. 我看见她上公共汽车了。

  如果宾语补足语是一系列动作,要用不定式。

  如:I saw him enter the room, unlock a drawer, take out a document, photograph it and put it back.我看见他进了房间,开了一个抽屉的锁,拿出一份文件,拍了照片,又把它放回。

  5.分词作状语

  现在分词作状语,现在分词的动作就是句子主语的动作,它们之间是主动关系;过去分词作状语,过去分词表示的动作是句子主语承受的动作,它们之间是被动关系。分词作状语可以表示时间、原因、方式或伴随情况等。

  时间状语:分词作状语,相当于时间状语从句。可在分词前面加when, while.

  如:Walking along the street one day, she saw a little girl running up to her.有一天当她正沿着大街向前走时,她看见一个女孩朝她跑了过来。

  (When she was walking along the street one day)

  When heated, ice will be changed into water.当冰受热时,它就会变成水。

  (When it is heated)

  原因状语:相当于表示原因的状语从句

  如:Having no place to go, the man wandered about in the street.由于没有要去的地方,那个男人只好在街上徘徊。

  (Because the man had no place to go)

  Being ill, he didn't go to school yesterday.他由于病了,昨天没有去上学。

  (Because he was ill)

  方式、伴随情况及结果状语

  如:She came running back to tell us the news.她跑着回来告诉我们这个消息。(方式)

  The headmaster went into the lab, followed by the foreign guests.校长走进了实验室,后面跟着外宾。(伴随)

  Jane fell off the bike, cutting her leg.简从自行车上摔下,划破了腿。(结果)

  条件状语:前面可带if, unless等从属连词,相当于条件状语从句。

  如:Working hard, you will succeed.好好工作,你就会成功的。

  (If you work hard)

  Some metropolitan newspapers would make sizable volumes if printed in book form. 如果印成书的形式,有些大城市的报纸的销量会相当可观。

  (If they are printed in book form)

  6. 独立结构

  当分词的动作不是句子的主语发出的, 而是属于主语以外的人或事物,这时必须在分词前给其加一个逻辑主语,这种带主语的分词结构通常称为独立主格结构。这种结构属于作状语,用来表示条件、原因、伴随情况等。

  如:Weather permitting, we'll have an outing tomorrow.要是天气许可的话,我们明天去郊游。(条件)

  The night being dark, she was afraid to go there.天黑,她不敢去那。(原因)

  The bell ringing, the children all stopped talking.铃声一响,孩子们都不说话了。(时间)

  The teacher came in, his hand carrying a book.老师手中拿着书进来了。(伴随情况)

  注:a)还有一种表示伴随情况的独立结构, with+名词或代词宾格+分词(或形容词、介词短语)

  如:With everything taken into consideration, we all think this is a very good plan.每件事情都考虑到了,我们认为这是一项不错的计划。

  She entered the train station, with a bag in her hand.她进了车站,手中提了一个包。

  He sleeps with the window open even in winter.他即使在冬天也开着窗户睡觉。

  b) 独立结构中的being, having been有时可以省去。

  如:The meeting (being) over, we all left the room.会议结束之后,我们都离开了房间。

  Our work ( having been)finished, we went home.我们的工作完成之后,我们都回家了。

  7.分词的否定结构

  现在分词的否定式由“not+现在分词”构成

  如:Not knowing where to go, she wanted to the police for help.她不知道该往哪走,就去请警察帮助。

  过去分词表否定,常借助un-等前缀表示。

  如:The boy was left uncared for.那孩子无人照管。

  8.现在分词的时态

  现在分词的一般式 doing:现在分词的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词表示的动词之前或之后发生。

  如:She sat there reading the text.她坐在那里读课文。(同时发生)

  Going into the room, he shut the door.走进房子,他就关上了门。(分词动作先于谓语发生)

  现在分词的完成式 having done:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前,通常只作状语,表示时间或原因。

  如:Having finished her homework, the little girl began to watch TV.做完作业后,这小女孩开始看电视。

  第二部分 巩固练习

  1.When I caught him _______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop.

  a. cheating b. cheat c. to cheat d. to be cheat

  选a. 现在分词作宾补表示动作正在发生

  2.__________, a man who expresses himself effectively is sure to succeed more rapidly than a man whose command of language is poor.

  a. Other things being equal b. Were other things equal c. To be equal to other things d. Other things to be equal

  选a. 独立主格结构

  3. All things _________ the planned trip will have to be called off.

  a. considered b. be considered c. considering d. having considered

  选a. 独立主格结构

  4. All flights __________ because of the snowstorm, many passengers could do nothing but take the train.

  a. had been cancelled b. have been cancelled c. were cancelled d. having been cancelled

  选d. 独立主格结构

  5.I have heard both teachers and students _____ well of him.

  a. speak b. to speak c. spoken d. to have spoken

  选a. 省略to的不定式作宾补,表示的是动作发生了。

  6.This crop has similar qualities to the previous one, __________ both wind-resistant and adapted to the same type of soil.

  a. been b. to be c being d. having been

  选c.现在分词作状语

  7.The sale usually takes place outside the house, with the audience_______ on benches, chairs or boxes.

  a. having seated b. seating c. having been seated d. seated

  选d. seat只能用过去分词的形式表示使就坐。

  8.You will see this product ______ wherever you go.

  a. to be advertised b. advertised c. advertise d. advertising

  选b.过去分词作宾补

  9.He wasn't appointed chairman of the committee, ________ not very popular with all its members.

  a. to be considered b. considering c. being considered d. having considered

  选c.分词短语作状语

  10.Professor Wang, __________ for his informative lectures, was warmly received by his students.

  a. knowing b. known c. to be known d having known

  选b. 过去分词作定语

【篇三】

  Text A Scientific Attitudes

  搭配:

  1. Seek answers to questions 寻找什么问题的答案(seek的过去式:sought)/动词词组

  2. lay aside 搁置(lay的过去式:Laid)/动词词组

  3. Be curious about 对什么好奇/形容词词组

  4. Take apart (e.g. a watch) 拆散/动词词组

  5. Combine sth. with sth. 把什么和什么结合在一起/动词词组

  6. Carry out the experiment 完成试验/动词词组

  7. Belief in sth./sb. 相信某人或某事/名词词组

  8. (there is)an explanation for sth. 解释某事/名词性词组

  9. There is a good reason why +句子 这就是为什么的原因

  10. Not at all 一点也不/副此词组

  11. Regardless of 不管;无论/形容词词组

  12. Succeed in sth./doing sth. 成工作某事/动词词组

  13. The solutions to problems 问题的解决办法/名词的解决方法

  14. In advance 提前/副词词组

  15. Adapt sth. to sth. 使什么适应什么/动词词组

  16. Make up one's mind 下定决心/动词词组

  17. Once and for all 一劳永逸地/副词词组

  18. Change in thinking 思想的转变/名词词组

  19. Make sth. necessary 事某事很必要/动词词组

  20. In the light of sth. 根据,参照,考虑到/介词词组

  21. Respect for sth. 对什么的尊敬/名词词组,动词词组

  22. The difficulty comes up. 问题产生了

  23. Base on sth. 根据什么/动词词组

  24. It may take time for sth./sb. to do sth. 做某事花某人多长时间

  25. Conditions for sth. 什么的条件/名词词组

  语言点:

  1. Belief的复数形式为beliefs

  2. Well-known/著名的

  3. Curious(adj.好奇的)――curiosity(n.好奇);imagine(v.想象)-imagination(n.想象力)

  4. Scientifically minded people 有科学头脑的人

  5. In cases where the explanation is unknown the scientific point of view is that there is a reason if it can only be discovered. 在对于现象还无法解释的时候,科学的观点是有理由相信迟早这种解释是可以被发现的。

  6. This means the ability to(做什么的能力) face the facts as they are(实事求是) regardless of what one has previously thought.

  7. Agree(v.同意)-disagreeable(adj.令人讨厌的)

  8. The worker in science must face facts whether they are pleasant or unpleasant.

  I didn't know whether to laugh or to cry when I heard the news.是…还是…

  Whether he succeeds or fails, he has to do his best.

  He doesn't know whether she is in Britain or she has gone to France.

  9. Thomas Edison failed thousands of times before he succeeded in producing the first electric lamp.

  10. Accept(v.接受)-acceptable(adj.可接受的)

  11. Scientific truth offers an explanation that is acceptable only in the light of what is known at a particular time.

  12. New ideas are frequently very slow to be accepted.

  13. Continued progress 继续的发展

  14. 时态题:There is an experiment on the sprouting of seeds which has been running for more than 50 years.

  Text B Solving Problems Scientifically

  搭配:

  1. Arouse one's curiosity 引起某人的注意/动词词组

  2. Result from=arise from 由于/动词词组;result in 导致/动词词组

  3. Give clue for doing sth. 为做某事提供线索/动词词组

  4. Build a firm foundation for doing sth. 为做某事打下坚实的基础/动词词组

  5. Make an inference 做推论/动词词组

  6. Turn out to be 结果是/动词词组

  7. Check with 与什么相符/动词词组

  语言点:

  1. Once是连接词,表示一旦。

  2. A thoroughly understood problem is well started toward solution. Be well started toward 是什么的良好开端。

  3. The development of industry has also brought about large numbers of problems which have to be solved.

  4. Related questions 相关问题;unanswered questions 为回答的问题;controlled conditions 被控制的条件

  5. Reliable(adj.可信赖的)-unreliable(adj.不可信赖的)

  6. Should the observations or predictions turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis. = If the observations or predictions should turn out to be as expected, the scientist has added confidence in the probable truth of his hypothesis。

  本课需要重点掌握的语法现象:动名词

  动名词兼有动词和名词的特征。因此在句中可以做主语、表语、宾语和定语。

  1.作主语

  直接将动名词放在句首作主语,谓语动词用单数。

  如:Seeing is believing. 百闻不如一见。

  Swimming is the best exercise in summer.在夏天,游泳是最好的锻炼方式。

  注:a)动名词和不定式都可以作主语,一般可以互换。但有时又略有区别。动名词作主语往往表示一般或抽象的多次行为,不定式作主语表式具体的或一次性的动作。

  如:Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火)

  To play with fire will be dangerous.(指一具体动作)

  b)在It is no use(good), not any use (good), useless 等后面一般用动名词作主语。

  如:It is no use arguing with him.同他争论无用的。

  It is no good learning English without practice.学英语不练是不行的。

  2.作表语

  如:The real problem is getting to know the difficulties of the students.现实的问题是了解学生的困难。

  注:a)动名词和不定式都可以做表语,区别在于:表示抽象的一般的行为时,多用动名词;表示某次具体的动作或具有将来时的意义时,多用不定式。

  如:My job is teaching English.我的工作是教英语。

  My today's job is to teach you how to study English. 我今天的任务是教你如何学英语。

  b) 动名词作表语时不要与进行时态混淆。进行时态说明动作是由主语完成的。动名词作表语,说明主语的性质和情况。

  如:He is collecting stamps.他在集邮。(现在进行时)

  His hobby is collecting stamps.他的爱好是集邮。(动名词)

  c) 动名词和现在分词作表语的区别:动名词作表语说明主语的内容,而且可以转换到句首作主语;现在分词作表语,表示主语的特征,其作用相当于形容词。

  如:His favorite sport is running.他最喜爱的运动是跑步。

  可以转换为:Running is his favorite sport.

  The film is very moving.这部影片很感人。

  3.作宾语

  1)必须接动名词作宾语的动词有:admit, appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, deny, finish, mind, postpone, risk等

  如:We'd better postpone discussing it till next week.我们最好把这件事推迟到下星期讨论。

  2) 有些动词既可以接动名词也可以跟不定式作宾语。如:attempt, begin, continue, hate, like, love, start,need等。如果用动名词,在意义上比较一般和抽象,时间观念不强;如果用不定式则表示具体的动作,有将来时的含义。

  如:The boys like playing football.这些男孩们喜欢踢足球。(经常性的动作)

  Would you like to play football with us this Sunday? 这个周日愿意和我们一起踢球吗?(指一次动作)

  注:need, require, want作需要解时,后面须根动名词或不定式的被动语态作宾语,这时动名词的主动式表示被动的意义。

  如:The window needs /wants/requires cleaning (to be cleaned).这个窗户需要清洗。

  3)在remember, forget, stop, mean, regret, try, go on等动词后动名词和不定式的区别比较大

  如:I remember reading the book.我记得读过这本书。(记得做过某事,已做)

  I remember to read the book.我必须记得去读这本书。(记住去做某事,未做)

  The old lady forgot telling us the story and told us a second time.那个老太太忘记给我们讲过这个故事,她又讲了一遍。(忘记做过某事,此事已经发生)

  I forgot to lock the door this morning.今天早晨我忘记锁门了。(忘记去做某事,此事未做)

  Though they were all tired, they wouldn't stop working.虽然他们都很累了,但是他们也不肯停止工作。(停止正在或经常做的事)

  After walking a long time, he stopped to have a rest.走了好长时间之后,他停下来休息。(停止某件事,目的是去做另一件事)

  Missing the train means waiting for another hour. 误了这趟火车意味着再等一个小时。(意味着)

  I mean to come early today.我打算今天早些来。(打算)

  He regretted saying that to her face.他后悔当她面说那番话。(对做过的事情后悔)

  I regret to tell you that I won't go with you.我很遗憾地告诉你,我不能和你一起去。(对要做的事遗憾)

  Why not try knocking at the back door?为什么不试试敲*。(试验,试一试某种方法)

  He will try to improve his spoken English.他要设法提高他的英语口语。(努力,企图做某事)

  They went on working after dark.天黑之后,他们继续工作。(继续原先没有做完的事情)

  After finishing the letter, he went on to read a book.写完信后,他接着读书。(继而做另外一件事)

  4)动名词作介词宾语

  如:He is against dancing all night.他反对通宵跳舞。

  注:下列短语中的to是介词,不是不定式符号

  如:in addition to除外, devote oneself to献身于,look forward to期望, be used to习惯于, stick to坚持,lead to导致,object to反对,be opposed to反对,pay attention to注意等

  如:He is used to working on the night shift.他已习惯上夜班。

  We are so much looking forward to seeing you again.我们非常盼望再见到你。

  4.做定语

  如:The teacher has many reading materials.老师有很多阅读材料。

  Our teacher uses a very good teaching method.我们教师的教学方法很好。

  注:动名词和现在分词作定语是有区别的。动名词作定语,和它修饰的名词在逻辑上没有主谓关系,即它不是该名词发出的动作,只是表明所修饰名词的目的和用途。现在分词作定语表示所修饰的词与分词有逻辑上的主谓关系。

  如:a sleeping car= a car for sleeping卧车(动名词)

  a sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping睡觉的男孩(分词)

  5.动名词的复合结构

  一般情况下,动名词的逻辑主语为谓语动词的主语。如果动名词动作的发出者不是谓语动词的主语,则需要有自己的逻辑主语。这种物主代词或名词所有格加动名词就构成了动名词的复合结构。

  1) 逻辑主语是有生命的名词,作主语时,必须名词或代词所有格,作宾语时(尤其在口语中),也可用名词普通格或人称代词宾格。

  如: Do you think my going there will be of any help? 你看我去会有什么帮助吗?(作宾语)

  The student's knowing English well helps him in learning French.这位学生通晓英语对他学法语很有帮助。(主语)

  Do you mind my (me) smoking? 你介意我抽烟吗?

  2) 逻辑主语是无生命名词时,一般只用名词普通格。

  如: Do you hear the rain pattering on the roof? 你听见雨点打在屋顶上了吗?

  3)逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词this, that, somebody, someone, nobody, anybody, anyone时,只用普通格。

  如: She was woken up by somebody shouting outside. 她被外面喊叫的人吵醒了。

  6.动名词的时态

  动名词的一般式:动名词的一般式表示动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生,或在谓语动词表示的动作之后。

  如:We are interested in collecting stamps.我们对集邮感兴趣。

  动名词的完成式:动名词的完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

  如:We were praised for having finished the work ahead of time.我们因提前完成了这项工作而受到了表扬。

  注:在介词on, upon, for, after之后,常用一般式代替完成式,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前。

  如:Excuse me for coming late.请原谅我来晚了。

  第二部分 巩固练习

  用动词适当形式填空:

  1. The text needs___________ (explain) once again.

  填 explaining/to be explained. need后面接动名词作宾语主动表被动。

  2. The movie is worth ___________ (see).

  填seeing. be worth doing.表示值得做什么

  3. I've had a hard time ________ (learn) English.

  填 learning. have a hard time (in) doing sth.

  4. I still remember __________ (take) you to Beijing for the first time.

  填 taking. remember doing sth.表示记得做过某事。

  5. Clint always remember __________ (turn) off the lights when he leaves the room.

  填to return. remember to do记得去做某事

  6. Now he regrets ________ ( not, go) to university.

  填not going. regret doing sth. 对做过的事情后悔

  7. We regret ________ (inform) you that the flight has been cancelled.

  填 to inform. regret to do sth. 对要做的事遗憾

  8. I regret _________ (let) slip that opportunity.

  填letting. regret doing sth. 对做过的事情后悔

  9. Peter went on ___________ (sleep) despite the noise.

  填sleeping. go on doing继续原先没有做完的事情

  10. He welcomed the new students and then went on __________ (explain) the college regulation.

  填 to explain. go on to do sth. 继而做另外一件事

  11. Mr.Smith regretted _____ (blame) his secretary for the mistake, for he later discovered it was his own fault.

  填 blaming. regret doing sth. 对做过的事情后悔

  12. The boy is constantly being told not to scratch the paint off the wall, but he goes on ________ (do ) it all the time.

  填doing. 继续原先没有做完的事情

  13. You must tell me the truth. I insist on _______ (tell) the truth.

  填telling. 介词on后面用动名词